History of the creation of the Internet
The history of breakthrough inventions is the history of cases, laziness or work in military research centres. In the case of the Internet, this third element decided. In 1957 the Soviet Union launched into space the first artificial satellite of the Earth – Sputnik. This event triggered the beginning of a cosmic race between the USA and the USSR. The beginning of the 1960s.
The beginning of the 1960s was a period of the so-called “Cuban crisis” during which Soviet medium-range ballistic missiles equipped with nuclear warheads were placed in Cuba. The threat was high because the rockets were located several hundred kilometers from the territory of the USA.
It was then that it was first realised that the destruction of the main channels of the United States’ communication system would lead to paralysis in the country. The idea was then to create a network that would function smoothly even if some of its centres were destroyed.
The American corporation RAND then proposed to connect all military and university systems into one network, in which each element would be equal and equally substitutable by another (even if it was broken or destroyed).
As a result of these events, the Agency for Advanced Research Projects (ARPA) was set up to develop new technologies with a view to using them in the future.
In 1962 Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider presented a project to connect all university computers working for ARPA (the project was baptized as ARPAnet), and two years later together with Bob Taylor presented the work on connecting all computers in the world.
The date of birth of the Internet is considered to be 1969. On 29 September this year, ARPAnet was established, which connected 4 computers in the USA. This network had no visible central point and was based on the so-called “exchange of packets” (information was divided into smaller units and sent between at least two computers).
In this way, Paul Baran’s 1962 concept was implemented, which identified the Network as “packet exchange”. This architecture was called “peer to peer”. The advantages of such a solution were:
- possibility of using the Internet by many users,
- increasing the speed of packet transmission (the more extensive the network, the more packets can travel on links that are currently less loaded),
- if one packet of information does not reach the other computer, it is not necessary to send all the information again, only the packet that did not reach or the one that contained errors.
In 1971, Ray Tomlinson wrote a program to send messages at a distance between computer users. He was the first to use the @ (at) character separating the recipient’s name (login) from the destination address (domain). Probably the first message was sent at the end of 1971.
In 1973 the Internet appeared for the first time in Europe. The USA was then connected to the United Kingdom (London College University) and Norway (Royal Radar Establishment). In 1977, the first discussion group called “TheoryNet” was formed, bringing together 100 scientists, and a year later in Chicago, the world’s first BBS offering real time calls, games, discussion forums, email, but still not a service available to the ordinary user.
Another breakthrough in the development of the Internet in the world occurred in the late 1970s with the creation of TCP/IP protocol. It is the most widespread communication protocol of all modern computer networks to this day. Thanks to the protocol:
- The network has become more effective and efficient,
- older networks (e.g. ARPAnet related networks) not compliant with the TCP/IP standard would still work,
- It was possible to add new networks without disconnecting others.
The TCP/IP protocol was recognised as the standard in 1983. Around the same time, ARPAnet was more and more often identified with the global network – the Internet. In the same year, the military part separated from ARPAnet, creating a separate network called MILNET, and ARPAnet continued to be used for scientific purposes.
Despite the division, the networks were still interconnected. The interconnection was named “DARPA Internet”, but soon it was shortened to “Internet”.
In 1990, the World Wide Web (World Wide Web) was created, a network-wide service that allows any user from anywhere in the world to use hypertext documents. The condition is to have an appropriate program on the computer to browse the pages called a web browser.
The first website in the same year was created by Tim Berners-Lee for the European Nuclear Research Centre CERN near Geneva. It suggested the possibility of connecting to the Internet in one hypertext. Tim Berners-Lee developed:
- a unified system of hypertext tags (HTML) used to create websites,
- a hypertext document transfer protocol (HTTP) to publish information on the network,
- unified way of addressing network resources (URL).
A milestone in the development of the Internet was the creation of the Mosaic Internet browser on 22 April 1993. It was the first graphical web browser that significantly contributed to the spread of the Internet around the world. Soon new commercial browsers started to be created on the basis of Mosaic: Netscape Navigator (20 September 1993) and Internet Explorer (August 1995).
Netscape Navigator quickly mastered the Internet market. Already in 1995, 80% of Internet users used this browser. In the same year, Microsoft released Internet Explorer, which initially became a part of the Microsoft Plus software package!
In June 1998 Microsoft released the Windows 98 operating system. Internet Explorer was added together with the system, which since then has become an inseparable component of Windows for many years. This procedure was considered by many to be an abuse of Microsoft’s monopoly position.
Thanks to connecting the browser to the operating system in less than a year, Internet Explorer achieved a dominant position on the market, which lasted until 2008, when the most popular browser became a related product of Mosaica – Mozilla Firefox.
Have you bought a smartphone? A very good choice, but if you haven’t thought about a suitable offer before buying it, the first thing you should do when you start playing with your new phone is to turn off data transmission. Why is it worth it? For your peace of mind and for the security of your wallet. If you do it, you can start to get to know your phone and wonder if the Internet on your phone is really unnecessary.